Table of Contents  - (under construction)

 

Subject                                                                                                          Section

Tools   ......................................................................................................        1    

RVSM Airspace Summary ....................................................................        2

Runway Friction Reports - "MU" values .............................................        3

 

Section 1: 

Tools

Descents and Climbs Interactive Excel spreadsheet: convert angles from tangent (run over rise), percent, 3 to 1 descent rule,  all converted to VSI vs groundspeed. Includes 200 ft-per-min / 3.3% climb rate. If the download give you jibberish, save target, then open Excel, then click "File" on excel and browse to find the file you just downloaded (This text is under construction) :  

decents climbs 082407c.xls decents climbs 082407c.xls
Size : 77.5 Kb
Type : xls

 Section 3:

AIM 4-3-9. Runway Friction Reports and Advisories

a. Friction is defined as the ratio of the tangential force needed to maintain uniform relative motion between two contacting surfaces (aircraft tires to the pavement surface) to the perpendicular force holding them in contact (distributed aircraft weight to the aircraft tire area). Simply stated, friction quantifies slipperiness of pavement surfaces.

b. The greek letter MU (pronounced "myew"), is used to designate a friction value representing runway surface conditions.

c. MU (friction) values range from 0 to 100 where zero is the lowest friction value and 100 is the maximum friction value obtainable. For frozen contaminants on runway surfaces, a MU value of 40‚ÄČor less is the level when the aircraft braking performance starts to deteriorate and directional control begins to be less responsive. The lower the MU value, the less effective braking performance becomes and the more difficult directional control becomes.

d. At airports with friction measuring devices, airport management should conduct friction measurements on runways covered with compacted snow and/or ice.

1. Numerical readings may be obtained by using any FAA approved friction measuring device. As these devices do not provide equal numerical readings on contaminated surfaces, it is necessary to designate the type of friction measuring device used.

2. When the MU value for any one-third zone of an active runway is 40 or less, a report should be given to ATC by airport management for dissemination to pilots. The report will identify the runway, the time of measurement, the type of friction measuring device used, MU values for each zone, and the contaminant conditions, e.g., wet snow, dry snow, slush, deicing chemicals, etc. Measurements for each one-third zone will be given in the direction of takeoff and landing on the runway. A report should also be given when MU values rise above 40 in all zones of a runway previously reporting a MU below 40.

3. Airport management should initiate a NOTAM(D) when the friction measuring device is out of service.

e. When MU reports are provided by airport management, the ATC facility providing approach control or local airport advisory will provide the report to any pilot upon request.

f. Pilots should use MU information with other knowledge including aircraft performance characteristics, type, and weight, previous experience, wind conditions, and aircraft tire type (i.e., bias ply vs. radial constructed) to determine runway suitability.

g. No correlation has been established between MU values and the descriptive terms "good," "fair," "poor," and "nil" used in braking action reports.

 
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